优化生产中的物流活动--全体系生产提高(ppt)

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清华大学卓越生产运营总监高级研修班

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优化生产中的物流活动--全体系生产提高(ppt)
Material Movement in a Lean Manufacturing Operation 优化生产中的物流活动
Total Systems Development
全体系生产提高
JIT生产(准时,准量生产):
What is meant by the term, “Just-In-Time”?
JIT生产意味着什么?
Does it mean JIT Supply?
准时,准量供应?
Does it mean JIT Production?
准时,准量生产?
So, what is Just-In-Time? 那么,什么是准时准量生产?
The concept of producing the necessary units in the necessary quantities at the necessary time is described by the short-phrase “Just-In-Time”.
JIT生产是:在必需时间内生产必需数量的必需部品的概念.
For example….
In building shoes: The necessary subassemblies of the proceeding process (uppers and bottoms) should arrive at the assembly line at the time needed in the amounts needed.
举例说明:
在生产成品鞋的时候:制鞋所必需的部件(鞋帮和鞋底)要准时,准量,准型号地到达制造车间.

If we achieve JIT: 如果我们做到准时,准量生产:
Unnecessary inventories will be eliminated.
不必要的库存就会消除
Stores and warehouses will not be needed.
储存区和仓库也可以取消
Material carrying costs will be diminished.
资材搬运成本降低
However….
To rely solely on a central planning approach that instructs the production schedules to all processes simultaneously is not likely to result in a JIT process for all operations.
但是:单纯地依赖计划生产的方法,使所有工序同步生产,并不能完全实现所有环节的准时,准量生产.
Typically, one control operation receives the customers’ orders and disseminates schedules. 通常,生产控制部门接受客户定单,然后制订并传达计划.
The problem comes when a change is made either because the order changes or equipment breaks down. 但是当定单有变化或设备出现问题的时候,就会发生一些问题:
The result is excess inventory… 结果是导致过多的库存…
…within the plant as Work-In-Process
…在本车间工序内积压过多的库存
…suppliers sending in parts that are not needed
…上一道工序发来的并不需要的部件
Additionally另外,
We need extra floor space to store the material.
我们需要额外的空间来堆放材料
Need expeditors to satisfy the changes in schedule.
需要人力和时间投入来改变生产计划
Run overtime to make up parts that we now need.
用加班时间来生产现在所需部件
Toyota rethought how to communicate schedules. 丰田公司对调整生产计划做了改进:
Toyota discovered a different way to manage their schedule,
丰田使用不同的方法来制订调整生产计划
They stopped trying to guess what the customer will want.
他们并不去猜想客户的需求

Instead相反..
Each department had installed a small inventory of each product.
每个车间都保持少量的库存
Downstream processes come to the supplying departments and take what it needs.
下一道工序到上一道工序去取他们所需部件
This allows the processes upstream to simply replace what was taken.
这样,上一工序只要补充被取走的部件即可.
The Toyota Production System TPS丰田体系….
Is likely to be the most studied and discussed operations program in the world.
是极可能被全世界研究和讨论的体系
Numerous books and papers have been written about TPS.
出版了很多关于TPS的书籍和其它资料
Many have come to characterize TPS as “lean production” or NOS.
许多人认为丰田体系(TPS)实际上就代表优化生产或NOS

Lean Manufacturing (NOS) NOS优化生产
Regardless of any author’s opinion or rational, all agree that the foundation of lean manufacturing (NOS) is the continual pursuit to eliminate waste.
尽管大家的观点有些不一样,但所有人都认为NOS的基础是持续不断地减少浪费
Waste is defined as anything that consumes resources or time, but does not add value to the product.
浪费是任何耗费资源或时间,但不增加产品价值的活动
Excess Inventory is Waste 多余的库存是一种浪费
Excess inventory hides problems
多余的库存会隐藏一些问题
Our goal for materials management in NOS NOS资材管理的目标
The ideal state is a smooth flow of materials throughout our own factory
理想的状态是物料在整个工厂内顺畅的流动.
We want to tie together processes that are separated by large physical distances.
使那些有一定距离而相对分离的生产流程紧密结合起来
We need to improve communication in regards to material movement.
在物流方面要加强各工序间的沟通
The Push System ”推动“生产体系
In traditional manufacturing, various production schedules are released to all processes; component making and assembly.
在传统的生产中,各种生产计划被传达到各个工序,部件生产和组装部门.
The Push System (cont.)”推动“
These part-making processes produce the parts in accordance to their schedules and transport the parts to the next process.
部件生产部门按照收到的计划生产并把成品部件运送到下一道工序.
The Push System (cont.)”推动“
This method makes it difficult to promptly adapt to changes.
这种方法使生产很难迅速对变化作出反应
Each production schedule must be changed at each process simultaneously.
每个工序的生产计划都必需同时变化以适应同步生产
The Push System (cont.)”推动”
The Result导致:
The company must hold extra inventory among all processes.
公司不得不在各个工序保持额外的库存
This creates an imbalance of stock between processes.
各工序间的库存达不到平衡
The Pull System “拉动”生产体系
In contrast, in a PULL SYSTEM, each process will withdraw the parts it needs from the proceeding process. 相反, “拉动”生产体系要求各个工序仅需从上一道工序提取自己所需要的部件.
The Pull System (cont.)”拉动”体系
Since only the final-assembly process can accurately know the necessary timing and quantity of parts required, they are the only ones to receive a schedule.
因为只有制造准确地了解所需时间和部件数量,以只要制造收到生产计划即可.
Final Assembly receives a schedule and pulls from the Market Place. Stitching and Stock-fit replenishes the Market Place. 制造接受生产计划,并借助“供应超市”拉动生产.缝纫和准备向“供应超市”补充部件.
The Pull System (cont.)”拉动”体系
With the schedule, the final-assembly goes to the supplying departments and withdraws what parts are needed.
根据生产计划,制造到供应车间去提取所需部件.
The Pull System (cont.)”拉动“生产
The preceding operation then produces the replacements of the parts withdrawn by the subsequent process. 这样,前一道工序开始生产被下一道工序提走的部件以补充所需.
Markets “供应超市”
Markets are the storage locations for all the parts prior to going to the next operation.
“供应超市”是为下一道工序储存所需各种部件的区域.
Markets simply are organized collections of purchased parts and work-in-process.
组建“供应超市”只是为了搜集购买的部件和线上的库存.
If parts are already stored in your plant, then you can construct markets.
如果工厂内有储存部件,那就可以设置此体系.
Cautions about Markets 关于“超市体系”的警告:
Don’t get caught up in other people’s philosophy.
不要受别的观点的影响:
Markets do not have to be located next to the receiving docks. 超市不一定要靠近部件接受区
Markets do not have to be large in size.
规模不一定很大
You can have several mini-markets if space is difficult to get. 若空间不够,可设多个分散的小超市.
Use your own common sense
运用自己的常识来解决问题!
Rules for developing Markets 设立“超市”的规则:
Have a storage location for every part.
为每一部件设立储存区
Determine the maximum of any one part that will be stored. 为任一需储存部件设立最大库存标准
Provide adequate storage space.
提供合适的储存区域
Safety is a priority.
要优先考虑安全因素.
Lessons Learned about Markets 设立超市需注意的几点:
Have an overflow spot and a means to monitor.
设立库存限制和监控方法
Try to reserve spaces for future parts.
提前考虑,为以后的部件留出储存空间
Preferably, do not store the same part in more than one location. 同一部件最好储存在一个区域
Make sure aisle ways can accommodate forklifts.
保证过道可容纳或通行搬运工具.
Determine customer demand确定客户需求
Takt time is a reference number that gives you a sense for the pace at which each process needs to be producing.
TAKT 节拍时间为了解并调整各个工序的生产速度提供参考依据
To calculate takt time, divide the available time by the customer demand.
用可利用的生产时间除以客户需求量,
即为节拍时间.
For our plant对我们公司来说:
One shift is nine hours
there is one 60-minute lunch
9小时一个班次,其中有1个小时的就餐休息时间
Work-time 工作时间
8Hrs. X 60min/hr = 480 minutes
8小时 X 60 = 480分钟
480 minutes per shift
There is 28,800 seconds per shift
480分钟每个班次,即28,800秒每个班次
Customer demand客户需求
The customer needs 2,000 pairs each day.
客户每天需要2,000足鞋
We work one shift each day in Assembly, 6 days per week.
制造车间每天一个班次,每周工作6天
Customer demand is 客户的需求是:
2,000 Pairs / 28,800 sec
2,000足 / 28,800秒
or 1 PAIR every 14.4 seconds
或每14.4秒需要产一足鞋
Market setups and locations 供应超市准备和位置选定
Locate space within the plant that can be used as a market(s).
选定公司可作为超市的位置
Minimize the number of markets.
If may be necessary to start with several small ones, later to combine into one.
尽量减少超市的数量,若有必要可先设立几个小的超市,以后再合并成大的超市.
Manpower and equipment needed 人员和设备要求
Parts are delivered to the line by Material Handlers using hand-carts.
搬运人员用手推车将部件运到生产线
The Material Handler has a designated route that covers all the stations he (or she) is responsible for.
搬运人员按照指定的运输路线负责自己的工作区域
He delivers all parts needed on that delivery cycle, retrieves all empty containers
搬运人员必须循环搬运所需部件,并取回空的部件箱
Training 培训
The people who are affected by the new system need to understand why the company has implemented the program.
新体系所涉及到的人员需要懂得为什么公司实施此体系
Those who are to support it must understand how it works.
支持新体系的人员需懂得体系是怎样运作的
All people must receive adequate training in order for the system to be both robust and successful.
所有相关人员需接受培训以保证新体系的运作效率和成功。
Training (continued) 培训
Remember who the audience is:
Production workers have little regard for how many turns the inventory makes…
Material handlers will not see inventory reduction as a benefit….
记住谁是培训对象:
那些对库存的影响不太关心的生产者…
看不到减少库存会带来收益的资材管理者…
Training (continued) 培训
Design your training program(s) using the knowledge you
will gain in the system’s development.
运用你在实施NOS的过程中得到的经验来设计培训内容,
Keep it simple.
使培训内容简洁易懂,
Give yourself enough time to handle the tough questions.
Respect the people’s concerns.
用足够的时间来解决比较棘手的问题,尊重别人的意见。
Results of a Pull System 生产拉动体系的结果
In operations where the implementation has been successful, both the management and workforce believe the work environment to be “enhanced”
在拉动体系取得成功的那些环节,无论是管理层还是工人都会认为他们的工作环境正在改善。

Results of a Pull System 生产拉动体系的结果
Where there has been little effort to make the system work, the plant typically has shortages and misses delivery windows.
若工厂没有努力去实现拉动生产,就会出现部件投入不足和不能按照生产需要来搬运部件。

优化生产中的物流活动--全体系生产提高(ppt)
 

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